There is no such thing as an historical tendency towards communism, revolution or emancipation, no teleology, no current upon which the forces of emancipation can be swept forward; nothing that guarantees their victory, no stages that naturally succeed one another. /…/ Social emancipation, should it happen, will be a leap into the unknown with no safety net, and not the execution of a sentence dictated by history.
On the contrary, it is the tendency to disaster that has an objective basis. /…/ Catastrophe is programmed, not emancipation; things left to run unchecked lead only into the abyss. If there are “laws of history”, they tend always to go in the wrong direction; human freedom and happiness never result from these laws but are always achieved against them.
Excerpt from the preface to Anselm Jappe, The writing on the wall. On the decomposition of capitalism and its critics (Zero Books, 2017).